Timeline of Hindustani Music | David Philipson - Bansuri
  1. Prehistoric Period

    Indus Valley Culture : Mohenjo-daro, Harrappa.

    Musical instruments including flutes, drums and string instruments have been found in excavations of Indus Valley sites.

  2. Vedic Period

    Beginning of Aryan immigration from Central Asia.

    (Sanskrit liturgical hymns, prayers, spells and incantations) :
    Rig Veda - 3 note chant.
    Sama Veda - 7 note chant.
    Atharva Veda
    Yajur Veda - poetic meters are antecedents of tala (rhythmic cycle).

  3. Upanishads, Brahamanas, Puranas
    (other Sanskrit liturgical texts).

    Gandarva Gaan
    (Music of the Celestial Singers) in practice.

  4. Buddhist Period

  5. Buddha's birth

  6. Reign of Emperor Ashoka

    Panini codifies Sanskrit grammar.

  7. Epic Period

    Bactrian Greek, Scythian and Kushan (Central Asian) Empires.

  8. Natya Shastra - by Bharata Muni
    (treatise on the art of vocal and instrumental music, dance and drama - known as the fifth Veda).

  9. Gupta Dynasty

  10. Kalidasa writes Sanskrit classic 'Shakuntala' and other works,
    Pathanjali codifies Hathayoga,
    Mahabarata & Ramayana attain most approved Sanskrit Recensions,
    Kama Sutra (Aphorisms on Love) penned by Vatsyayana.

  11. Bhrihadesi - musical treatise by Matanga first mentions 'raga' .

    Jatiraga form of music in practice.

  12. Muslim Dynastic Period

  13. Jaidev writes Gita Govinda.

    Chandaprabandha (bound by meter) style of music in practice.

  14. Sangeet Ratnakar (Ocean of Music)
    treatise on music authored by Sarangadev in DevGiri court.

  15. Allaudin Kilji, Afghan Sultan of Delhi.
    Amir Kusru, Gopal Nayak were famous musicians of this era.

    Beginnings of Drupad (divine verse) style of music.

  16. Moghul Period

  17. Reign of Raja Man Singh Tomar
    Rajput King of Gwalior - patron and exponent of Drupad style.

  18. Vasco da Gama lands in Calicut - first colonial European arrival in India.

  19. Reign of Emperor Akbar

    Miyan Tansen (c. 1500 – 1586) - one of the Nine jewels of Akbar's court, the "Bach" of Hindustani music, exponent and innovator of Drupad style.

  20. British Colonial Period

    British East India Company chartered.

  21. British establish Calcutta.

  22. Death of Aurangzeb, last Moghul Emperor.

  23. Sadarang (Niamat Khan) and his nephew and son-in-law Adarang (Feroze Khan) popularize 'Kyhal' (imagination) style of music under the patronage of Emperor Mohamed Shah.

  24. Battle of Plessy - consolidation of British rule.

  25. Sepoy Rebellion - further consolidation of British rule.

    Nawab Wazid All Shah of Oudh (Ayodhya) - Kathak dance and the romantic Thumri style of music flower under his patronage.

  26. Pannalal Ghosh (creator of the modern bansuri, and pioneer performer of Hindustani classical music on the bamboo flute) born in Barisal, East Bengal (Bangladesh).

  27. Musicologists Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande and Vishnu Digambar Paluskar initiate a popular interest in Hindustani classical music.

  28. Modern Period

    Indian/Pakistani Independence.

  29. Ali Akbar Khan first visits USA and records the first LP of Hindustani music.

  30. Ravi Shankar's first performances in USA.

  31. Ravi Shankar establishes Kinnara School of Music in Los Angeles.

  32. All Akbar Khan founds his College of Music in Northern California.

  33. Death of Allauddin Khan.

  34. Death of Ali Akbar Khan.

  35. Death of Ravi Shankar.

© 1996 - 2023 David Philipson
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